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The Soviet Union penetration of the Third World challenged the supremacy of the United States in the bipolar system, which emerged as a result of the Second World War and manifested itself in the formation of the nonalignment movement in the Third World.


The challenge was confronted successfully in the weak link of nonalignment in the Middle East where Israel represented the battle carrier of the West and its sentinel in the area.


Israel waged counterrevolutionary war against the frontline Arab states: Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, and defeated them ignominiously.


A revolutionary resistance movement erupted and ushered in a new era of possible transformation through people’s armed struggle. However, the Arab regimes used the resistance as a tactic, not a strategy, and suppressed it on the eve of Nasser’s death on September 28, 1970. Consequently, Egypt and Syria launched the October 6 War of 1974, and Egypt reached a modus operandi that paved the way to an Israeli-Egyptian “peace.”


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